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Tyrannosaurus rex skeletal diagram (CM 9380) by Franoys Tyrannosaurus rex skeletal diagram (CM 9380) :iconfranoys:Franoys 61 22 Mapusaurus roseae skeletal diagram. by Franoys Mapusaurus roseae skeletal diagram. :iconfranoys:Franoys 73 46 Brachs and Guests. by Franoys Brachs and Guests. :iconfranoys:Franoys 44 69 Spinosaurus aegyptiacus skulls. by Franoys Spinosaurus aegyptiacus skulls. :iconfranoys:Franoys 59 9 Giganotosaurus carolinii skeletal diagram. by Franoys Giganotosaurus carolinii skeletal diagram. :iconfranoys:Franoys 70 67 Puertasaurus reuili life restoration. by Franoys Puertasaurus reuili life restoration. :iconfranoys:Franoys 49 15 The isle Dinosaurs chart by Franoys The isle Dinosaurs chart :iconfranoys:Franoys 42 49 Tyrannosaurus rex skeletal diagram (FMNH PR 2081) by Franoys Tyrannosaurus rex skeletal diagram (FMNH PR 2081) :iconfranoys:Franoys 70 27 Carcharodontosaurus saharicus skeletal diagrams. by Franoys Carcharodontosaurus saharicus skeletal diagrams. :iconfranoys:Franoys 69 41 Carcharodontosaurus Skulls multi view. by Franoys Carcharodontosaurus Skulls multi view. :iconfranoys:Franoys 45 1 Tyrannotitan chubutensis Skeletal Diagrams. by Franoys Tyrannotitan chubutensis Skeletal Diagrams. :iconfranoys:Franoys 66 44 Tyrannotitan chubutensis skull bones. by Franoys Tyrannotitan chubutensis skull bones. :iconfranoys:Franoys 28 14 Tyrannosaurus Rex Tristan Otto skull bones. by Franoys Tyrannosaurus Rex Tristan Otto skull bones. :iconfranoys:Franoys 28 18 Wandering Allosaurus Fragilis by Franoys Wandering Allosaurus Fragilis :iconfranoys:Franoys 19 10 Tyrannosaurus Rex FMNH PR 2081 life restoration. by Franoys Tyrannosaurus Rex FMNH PR 2081 life restoration. :iconfranoys:Franoys 30 2 Spinosaurus life restoration by Franoys Spinosaurus life restoration :iconfranoys:Franoys 16 7

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Introduction:

As Chritopher Brochu once noted in his osteological study on Tyrannosaurus: "Nothing evokes prehistory more than Tyrannosaurus rex. Nearly any five-year-old in the industrialized world knows what it is, and to many, Tyrannosaurus is the quintessential predatory dinosaur-as Paul (1988:344) stated, "this is the theropod." It is the only nonavian dinosaur (and one of the few organisms) popularly known by the specific rather than generic name-"T. rex" is as common in the popular media as "Tyrannosaurus."

As well as:

“Tyrannosaurids are no more relevant to phylogenetics or comparative biology than any other group of organisms, but they are extremely popular. When we do science with Tyrannosaurus, we do it with a broader audience than if it were done with almost any other animal.”


Along with the biggest fame, come the greatest hyperboles, and the highest numbers of fanatics, as well as the most intense of them. However so do the most harsh minusvalorations, and the highest ammount of detractors, as well of the most insistent of them.

Despite the subjective appreciations of each individual, Tyrannosaurus is still just an extint animal which can be anylized by scientific methodology just as any other, nothing more, and nothing less. On the basis of theese premises and without further dilation; the results of this mass estimation on FMNH PR 2081 are offered and the multiview restoration used are ofered.

Results:



SueGDI by Franoys

Restoration analyzed:
SueforGDI by Franoys

Discussion of the methodology:


The totality of the animal has been reconstructed from several views based on it's osteological description (Brochu 2003) and LIDAR scans (Hutchinson 2011), as well as those of other Tyrannosaurid specimens, in order to produce the mass estimation, and each body section has been analyzed and weighted by a high fidelity MATLAB script, made by my partner and me (a big thank you to her for always being my greatest support) .

For those unfamiliarized with the method, the program analyzes two views of the same section of the body, for example the torso seen from top and from the side, and then constructs a three-dimensional model of it based on a lot of eliptical sections put together, with one of the elypsis' axis based on one view, and the other one on the other.

The program makes this Graphical Double Integration method ( svpow.com/2011/01/20/tutorial-… ) as exact as it can be, doing one slice per pixel in order to produce the pixel wide elypsis that will be put together. Being one meter equal to 490 pixels in my restorations, the program produces thousends of eliptical sections in order to weight the animal, much more than the 50-100 ish that can be done with a paper and a pencil or with excel.

In order to produce the torso, all the ribs were attached to the dorsal vertebrae in anterior view, and then projected to the dorsal view and angled from above in order to give the torso of the animal a shape.

Example of the methodology used to reconstruct the trunk sections:

Sueribcageflex by Franoys

The torso has been produced in a somewhat conservative manner.

Hutchinson (2011) assests "that the torso of the mount is inflated in width due to a dorsal displacement of the transverse processes on the trunk vertebrae, which forced a dorsal displacement of the tubercular articulations and a lateral expansion of the rib cage as a whole."

Therefore the distortion of the transverse processes in the vertebrae was corrected in order to avoid the artificial expansion of some of the ribs. Hutchinson's main concern about their mass estimation is then fixed.

Example of de-crushing applied to all of the vertebrae:

Crushed by Franoys
The ribs are more angled from above than those of the mount of FMNH PR 2081 in the Field museum of Chicago, and therefore mounted more similarly to how the BHI articulates the Tyrannosaurus mounts they prepare.
Considering both modifications, it is not surprising that the results of this estimation are moderately lower than those of Hutchinson et al 2011 (8830 kg compared to 9500 for the minimal model).

It is, however slightly larger than the estimation Scott Hartman came up with, and that has adquired a significant amount of fame in the internet due to being compared to that of Giganotosaurus.

Discussion of the result and conclusions:

The estimation of FMNH PR 2081 that I have produced is moderately to substantially higher than the masses that I have calculated using this same methodology for the other largest theropod dinosaur specimens.

The mass of 8830 kg of Tyrannosaurus (FMNH PR 2081) is ofered in contrast to that of 7560 kg of Spinosaurus (MNSM v 4047) , 6840 kg in Giganotosaurus (Mucpv Ch1), 6400 kg in Tyrannotitan (MPEF pv 1157), 6325 kg in Carcharodontosaurus (SGM din 1) and 6110 kg in Acrocanthosaurus (NCSM 14345). Therefore according to theese the largest theropod specimen would belong to Tyrannosaurus rex.

The results compare well with those obtained with other volumetric estimations, falling between the estimations of :iconscotthartman: (8400 kg static1.squarespace.com/static… ) and Hutchison et al 2011 (9500 kg journals.plos.org/plosone/arti…). Considering that Scott showed concerns regarding the mass probably being on the low end, and Hutchinson showed concerns about their mass estimation potentially being too high, I find the results satisfactory and probable.

Here you can see the mass calculations made on the other animals:
Mathematical analysis on Carcharodontosaurus mass
A mathematical analysis on Tyrannotitan mass.
A mathematical analysis on Giganotosaurus mass.
A mathematical analysis on Spinosaurus mass.
Acrocanthosaurus GDI:
AcroGDIhump

References:

Christopher A. Brochu (2003): Osteology of Tyrannosaurus Rex: Insights from a nearly complete Skeleton and High-Resolution Computed Tomographic Analysis of the Skull, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 22:sup4, 1-138

Hutchinson JR, Bates KT, Molnar J, Allen V, Makovicky PJ (2014) Correction: A Computational Analysis of Limb and Body Dimensions in Tyrannosaurus rex with Implications for Locomotion, Ontogeny, and Growth. PLOS ONE 9(5): e97055.

Bates KT, Manning PL, Hodgetts D, Sellers WI (2009) Estimating Mass Properties of Dinosaurs Using Laser Imaging and 3D Computer Modelling. PLoS ONE 4(2): e4532.

www.skeletaldrawing.com/home/m…

svpow.com/2011/01/20/tutorial-…





Tyrannosaurus rex skeletal diagram (CM 9380)
The rigurous and fully restored skeletals of CM 9380, originally labeled as AMNH 973 and described by Osborn in 1905 and 1906. It was sold to CM during second world war, in fear that a japanese attack to New York could destroy all Tyrannosaurus specimens. It is the holotypic specimen , so it is the one the species was named after and Tyrannosaurus rex by definition, all of the other specimens are referred to the species. The mounted skeleton is based to a great degree in AMNH 5027, and carries several innacuracies from the time it was assambled that are very hard to correct. It is exhibited at the Carnegie museum of Natural history.
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Mapusaurus roseae skeletal diagram.
For all those who thought that Tyrannosaurus arms were small, here comes Mapusaurus, the most derived Carcharodontosaurid known (and also one of the largest, tied with Giganotosaurus). This is the one that hunted Argentinosaurus, not Giganotosaurus, and apparently it could have been social. It was the apex predator of it's enviroment.

Mapusaurus was found in the Huincul formation, and was named after the rose colored rocks it was found in and after Rose Lewtin who sponsered the expedition. It lived 97-93 million years ago (Late Cretaceous, Cenomanian age) in the Gondwanan continent, in what today is Argentina.

Several bone elements are coherent with at least one Giganotosaurus sized individual, all of the biggest axial skeleton remains match those of Giganotosaurus in size, and a maxilla, a fibula, a pubic shaft fragment, and a scapular blade fragment and an ischium could have belonged to it. The restoration is scaled to the size of this individual, although other smaller Mapusaurus bones were of course used and scaled up to match the size of the bigger remains.

This version is not completely final but it is close to it, and more deviations on this animal will come, perhaps one with the distinct individuals (at least some of them) and the rigurous skeletal/skeletals. 
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Brachs and Guests.
So here you have a chart with several Brachiosaurid specimens compared to several other animals. The groups are as follows:

Brachs (Info included in the chart)

Europasaurus.
Brachiosaurus sp.
Fusuisaurus zhaoi.
Brachiosaurus altithorax.
Giraffatitan brancai.
Breviparopus.
Cedarosaurus.

Guests: (left to right)

Palaeoloxodon namadicus: 5.2 m SH, 22 t. The largest land mammal reported, almost surely bigger than Paraceratherium. It matches and surpasses a good deal of sauropod dinosaurs in mass. But even the iconic Berlin's Giraffatitan, which is a subadult specimen, outweights it and greatly exceeds it's linear dimensions. Potter creek Brachiosaurus specimen is 2,43 times more massive.

Loxodonta africana (African elephant) 1) Jumbo: 3.23 m SH, ~6.15 t. 2) Largest known specimen; 3.96 m SH, ~10.4 t. The largest land animal alive today, and one that surpasses the smaller sauropods in size, but is still dwarfed by the bigger ones. It matches the giant theropods in size, and the biggest specimens known surpass all theropod specimens. However, the largest Brachiosaur in the chart is more that 5 times the mass of the record breaking Elephant.

Balaenoptera musculus: The largest animal to ever exist. The smaller specimen is a full grown, well fed specimen at 29.9 m long and 173 t, and the bigger one is the largest ever reported, with a body length of 33.6 meters, and a probable mass of 239 t asuming isometrical scaling. One specimen of Balaenoptera musculus is as heavy as several of the Brachiosaurids together.

Giraffe (Giraffa) 1) 5 m total height, 1200 kg. 2) Wold record Giraffe: 5.88 m total height and a probable mass of 1930 kg. Giraffes are the tallest land mammals to ever exist, and the largest ungulates alive today. Even Europasaurus, the smallest known brachiosaur, competes with the larger Giraffes in height and outweigths all of them.

Spinosaurus aegyptiacus 14.9 m TL, 7.6 t .One of the largest predators to ever exist, Spinosaurus makes up for an interesting contrast with the Brachiosaurs, being short in height but very elongated. Potter creek specimen is over 7 times the mass of Spinosaurus, while Spinosaurus is almost 3 times as heavy as Europasaurus.

Futalognkosaurus dukei. 22.4 m TL, 41.4 t. Futalognkosaurus has been claimed to be one of the biggest dinosaurs ever and also bigger than Brachiosaurus. As it stands here, it is slightly smaller or comparable in size (mass) to the holotype of B altithorax and is smaller than the biggest Brachiosaurid specimens of several species. Most of them surpass it in height and body length in lateral view. So no it is not really bigger than Brachiosaurus.

***** DISCLAIMER: My Honor is called Loyalty, and my Art is Honorable – therefore I do not take credit for any other artist's skeletal or schematic references used as reference for this image. Nor do I claim them as my own.

This image is based on :iconscotthartman: (Giraffatitan, Brachiosaurus, Futalognkosaurus), :iconpaleo-king:(Europasaurus, Cedarosaurus) :iconasier-larramendi: (Loxodonta, Palaexolodon) and :iconsteveoc86: (Paluxysaurus) skeletals/schematics. ******

PD: Paleo-king's skeletals have some big differences with Hartman's, and since I started with Hartman's work and had almost everything done yet I had to adapt his skeletals in order for the chart to not look ugly ( I hope he isn't offended by this!) the changes are changing the neck posture, flexing the metatarsals closer to the ground to give the animals more plantigrade like stepping, and I also changed the limb posture to avoid GSP pose. The posture applied to Nima's sauropods limbs is similar to that of the mounted G.brancai in Berlin. ( The mount inspired me greatly after my travel to Berlin)

The mass estimations are based on vollumetric mathematical estimations (as almost every estimation that I upload) using a high precission matlab script that applies a Graphical double integration calculation.

The mass estimations are made by me and :iconspinoinwonderland: . A big thank you to him for spending his time helping us with the mass estimations, it is greatly appreciated.
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As always, the results first:
carchGDI2 by Franoys

CarchyGDItable by Franoys

Here you have the previous calculations made with the method used; graphical double integration, a type of vollumetric estimation:
A mathematical analysis on Tyrannotitan mass.

A mathematical analysis on Giganotosaurus mass.

A mathematical analysis on Spinosaurus mass.

The method consists in constructing a simplified 3D model of the animal mathematically, by building eliptical cross sections and adding them up, given two views of each of it's body sections. The analysis is performed by a matlab mathematical script with pixel accuracy. More information about the method itselft here:

www.deviantart.com/users/outgo…

I'll discuss a bit about Carcharodontosaurus here, but briefly since I believe I'll dedicate one more journal, or even more, to it.

The Carcharodontosaurus skeletal is again original research and work. Carcharodontosaurus is a largely incomplete animal, the holotype was only known by a couple of broken nassals, some pieces of a broken maxilla, bones of the occipital region, a braincase, two cervicals, a caudal vertebra and two partial chevrons, partial pubis and ischium, a femur, and a fíbula (Stromer 1931). Furthermore and with like Spinosaurus, Bahariasaurus, and Aegyptosaurus, it's remains were destroyed in the second world war.

The neotype consists of fragments of a skull, that when put togheter, is very big ( Sereno 1996) . When using Tyrannotitan to reconstruct the rear of the skull and Acrocanthosaurus to reconstruct the rest it ends at about 1.53 m long in maximum metric measurements (Currie and Carpenter 2000, Canale 2014) (far from the 1.6+ m that was reported to the press)
The skull is not only not as long as reported; it is also very narrow, and as a result, it's length alone is missleading to judge it's total size, and in fact the head does mass little compared to the more robust heads of other giant predatory dinosaurs. According to my best fit of the skull elements of the holotype and the neotype, the Neotype is an animal that would have a 12.5% bigger skull (roughly). With a skull about 1.35 m in length, the holotype of Carcharodontosaurus was not small headed, and had a similar skull/body ratio than all other Carcharodontosaurines.

The missing elements are based on Tyrannotitan, the animal that is most closely related to Carcharodontosaurus according to the latest phylogenetic analysis (Canale 2014) and also one that shares with it a bunch of very interesting characters that will be discussed in another journal. Carcharodontosaurus is NOT out of the clade that bounds Tyrannotitan, Giganotosaurus , and Mapusaurus togheter, it is in fact strongly bounded to them in Carcharodontosaurinae, a clade of derived, giant Gondwanan Carcharodontosaurids, even if another smaller clade, Giganotosaurini, bound the south american Carcharodontosaurines even more strongly. 

Carcharodontosaurus is barely any bigger than Tyrannotitan in linear dimensions according to how most of the bones compare, the Carcharodontosaurus holotype has a femur smaller than that of the Tyrannotitan holotype, it's extrapolation to SGM din 1 size is barely any bigger than the same element in Tyrannotitan paratype, and the jugal of the Tyrannotitan paratype fits almost perfectly in SGM din 1 skull. Here it is scaled to be a vague (and optimistic) 0.5% bigger in linear dimensions based on marginal differences, and is also given a slightly lengthier tail to fit the only known caudal of the Carcharodontosaurus' holotype better.

However, that couldn't prevent Tyrannotitan being more massive than Carcharodontosaurus, even when Carcharodontosaurus is based mainly on it.  
The difference, although almost negliable, is due to Tyrannotitan having a bigger pubis ( as discussed in the last journal) and a possibly wider skull and neck. The difference in skull width is conservative, because Tyrannotitan could have had a wider head that I gave it credit for; if it's skull was built similarly to Giganotosaurus. For theese journals, I took the middle ground approach for Tyrannotitan skull width. Giving Tyrannotitan a skull similar to the one I used for Giganotosaurus would augment it's mass about 50 kg, augmenting it's mass advantage over Carcharodontosaurus from 75 kg to about 125 kg. 

So, is Carcharodontosaurus the enormous, small headed 8t or 9t+ ultra-giant that some people wanted to see in it's fragmentary ( and not that impressive) remains? It seems like it isn't, but further discussion on that will be for another journal.

Here you have the Carcharodontosaurus restorations:

Carcharodontosaurus saharicus skeletal diagrams. by Franoys


References:

Stromer 1931 II. Vertebrate remains from the Baharîje Beds (lowermost Cenomanian). 10. A skeletal remain of Carcharodontosaurus nov. gen. 

Paul C. Sereno, Didier B. Dutheil, M. Larochene, Hans C. E. Larsson, Gabrielle H. Lyon, Paul M. Magwene, Christian A. Sidor, David J. Varricchio, Jeffrey A. Wilson (1996): Predatory Dinosaurs from the Sahara and Late Cretaceous Faunal Differentiation. Science, New Series, Vol. 272, No. 5264 (May 17, 1996), pp. 986-991 

Juan Ignacio Canale, Fernando Emilio Novas & Diego Pol , Historical Biology (2014): Osteology and phylogenetic relationships of Tyrannotitan chubutensis Novas, de Valais, Vickers-Rich and Rich, 2005 (Theropoda: Carcharodontosauridae) from the Lower Cretaceous of Patagonia, Argentina, Historical Biology: An International Journal of Paleobiology.

Fernando E Novas, Silvina de Valais, Pat Vickers-Rich, Tom Rich (2005): A large Cretaceous theropod from Patagonia, Argentina, and the evolution of carcharodontosaurids

Currie P. J. & Carpenter K. 2000. — A new specimen of Acrocanthosaurus atokensis (Theropoda, Dinosauria) from the Lower Cretaceous Antlers Formation (Lower Cretaceous, Aptian) of Oklahoma, USA. Geodiversitas 22 (2) : 207-246.


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Franoys

Artist | Student | Digital Art
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Young writer and paleontology/biology student. Fantasy and sci fi fan since forever.
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:iconforbiddenparadise64:
ForbiddenParadise64 Featured By Owner May 3, 2017
I know it sounds weird, but do you mind if I use (with credit obviously) one or two of your skeletals for an update of my size chart? I did try to google public domain stuff for Rex but they end up looking like crap. 
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:iconfranoys:
Franoys Featured By Owner May 3, 2017  Student Digital Artist
You can use them with credit of course.
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:iconpaleojoe:
PaleoJoe Featured By Owner Mar 17, 2017  Student Traditional Artist
Hello Franoys, may I please use your Giganotosaurus as a general base for my Mapusaurus skeleton? If so I will give you full credit for the reference.
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:iconfranoys:
Franoys Featured By Owner Mar 21, 2017  Student Digital Artist
Go ahead. I'll be sure to check your results.
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:iconpaleojoe:
PaleoJoe Featured By Owner Mar 21, 2017  Student Traditional Artist
Thank you very much.
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